The original model, with five factors, was inadequate for the Portuguese context. As a result, the main components that underlie this instrument were determined using an exploratory factor analysis, followed by a confirmatory analysis to verify the new model. Based on this analysis, the original instrument was reduced to 17 items that form four dimensions: Expressivity, Self-affirmation, Self-control, and Conversation.
Differently from the original exploratory model, established with data from Brazilian couples, the items that evaluated reactive self-control and proactive self-control subclasses of behavior were grouped in a single factor called Self-control, in the Portuguese sample.
Older people with high literacy skills tend to be more persuasive and have a greater ability to negotiate. In other words, it is possible that the capacity to express and accept different opinions may be greater among older people who have more extensive social experience and among people with higher educational levels who have greater language development , which might have resulted in a different organization of the items in the factor analysis.
To test this hypothesis, we conducted a preliminary analysis, dividing the sample in two parts, according to age. We observed that, for the participants of up to 40 years in age, these items were related to scores for both Self-control and Expressivity. Thus, this explanatory hypothesis seems to be relevant, although it should be tested more thoroughly in future studies. Another possible explanation could be cultural differences that could have caused a different understanding of the items.
In this manner, empathy is closely intertwined with this process. It will be important, however, to further investigate the hypothesis about the use of empathic social skills among Portuguese couples, during conflict resolution. Overall, the results demonstrated good internal consistency for the first three dimensions.
However, it is true that the number of items directly effects alpha values; as such, Clark and Watson recommend constructing instruments with at least four items for each dimension. Thus, the fact that the Assertive Conversation dimension has only two items may be contributing to the low value for this coefficient.
Additional studies are needed to assess the relevance of this dimension and, if theoretical models and empirical evidence support its inclusion in the inventory, new items will need to be tested, to improve the measurement precision of this dimension. In addition, it is important to examine the coherence between the internal structure of the instrument and theoretical concepts regarding the phenomenon. As such, Pasquali emphasizes the role of factor analysis, which makes it possible to determine when a theoretical model is coherent with an evidence-based factor structure, indicating the validity of the theoretical model.
Thus, in addition to the evidence reported in this paper concerning the precision and validity of the Portuguese version of the Marital Social-Skills Inventory, convergent and discriminatory validity tests, for example, are needed, to make further progress in validating this instrument Urbina, As such, in future studies, the factor structure presented in this paper should be further tested and additional information is needed to evaluate its adequacy for the Portuguese population.
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It is also important to consider some of the limitations of the current study that may involve factors that can account for differences in the Brazilian and Portuguese factor structures, such as differences in the educational levels of the Portuguese and Brazilian respondents. While We also emphasize that a non-random, convenience sample was used, which is a limiting factor on the results. Furthermore, no instruments were used to evaluate the relationship between marital social-skills and other constructs, such as marital satisfaction.
It is important to highlight that, although there are cultural similarities between Portugal and Brazil, given the historical influences they have in common, there are also cultural influences that are specific to each country. Situational and cultural factors have a significant influence on social skills and need to be identified, given that they are not fixed; social performance alters according to contextual cues, social demands and conduct patterns that are typical of each culture and subculture Del Prette et al.
As such, the transcultural adaptation and validation of social skills inventories must always take into consideration the existence of cultural specificities that may make it difficult to produce a second version of the instrument that is the same as the original one. In the current study, more general transcultural elements that could be valid for both contexts were identified.
Aguiar, J. Estudos de Psicologia Campinas , 35 3 , Arbuckle, J.
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Bolsoni-Silva, A. Temas em Psicologia, 18 1 , Braz, A. Habilidades sociales e intergeneracionalidad en las relaciones familiares. Relaciones de pareja e habilidades sociales: el respeto interpersonal. Clark, L. Constructing validity: Basic issues in scale development.
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Psychological Assessment, 7 3 , Couto, G. Estudos de Psicologia Campinas , 29 Supl. Del Prette, A. Del Prette, Z.
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Figueredo, P. George, D. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Gottman, J. Krasner Eds. Kline, R. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling 3rd ed. New York: Guilford Press. Manolio, C.
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Estudos e Pesquisas em Psicologia, 11 2 , Lisboa: Report Number. Norgren, M. Estudos de Psicologia Natal , 9 3 , Nunes, C. Santos Ed. Pasquali, L. Porto Alegre: Artmed. Pinho, V. Sardinha, A. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, 2 5 3 , Tabachnick, B. Using multivariate statistics 6th ed. New York: Allyn and Bacon.
Tanzer, N. Adapting instruments for use in multiple languages and cultures: A review of the ITC guidelines for test adaptations. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 15 3 , Urbina, S. Villa, M. Psicologia em Estudo, 12 1 , AGUIAR was responsible for the conception of this research, data collection, data analysis and interpretation of the results; the M. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Services on Demand Journal. Barry Hatton employs a paradox to introduce the Portuguese problem or enigma. All of this is true. But the spectacle of the typical Portuguese bullfight is used by Hatton to remind all those skeptics and catastrophists and how many among them are Portuguese! Chapter three is all about the Portuguese-speaking world. He begins by mentioning the famous conference, organized by Antero de Quental in in order to discuss the causes of the decadence of the Iberian countries.
Chapters six, seven and eight constitute a triptych on the instability of twentieth-century Portugal.
Chapter eight deals with Portugal in Europe, beginning in , or more precisely it examines the European influx into Portugal, and describes how that general input was badly misused. Sated by abundance, Portugal grew fat instead of building muscle.