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Los secretos del examen GED. Steck-Vaughn ciencias. Steck-Vaughn estudios sociales. Barron's Civil Service Clerical Exams. Barron's Comprehensive Postal Exam. Barron's Nursing School Entrance Exams. Border Patrol Exam. California Highway Patrol Officer Exam. California Real Estate License Preparation. Civil Service Exams: Power Practice. Commercial Pilot Test Prep. CSET English. Subtests I - IV. Electrician's Exam Study Guide. EMT Basic Exam. Firefighter Exams. Guide to the Automobile Certification Examination. The examination system inevitably created a large number of men who experienced repeated failures.
During the Tang period, the ratio of success to failure in the palace exam was or In the Song dynasty, the ratio of success to failure for the metropolitan exam was about In the Ming and Qing dynasties, success to failure for the provincial exam was about For every shengyuan in the country, only one in three thousand would ever become a jinshi. While most candidates were men of certain means, there were also those who were poor that risked everything on passing the exams.
Ambitious and talented candidates who experienced repeated failures felt the bite of indignation. For men of these qualities, failure often escalated from disappointment to desperation, and sometimes even revolt. Huang Chao led a massive rebellion in the late Tang dynasty, after it had already been weakened by the An Lushan rebellion. He was born to a wealthy family in western Shandong. He studied hard for the examinations but after repeated failures, abandoned that path, and created a secret society that engaged in illicit salt trading.
Although Huang Chao's rebellion was ultimately defeated, it led to the final disintegration of the Tang dynasty. Among Huang Chao's cohort were other failed candidates such as Li Zhen, who specifically targeted government officials, killed them and threw their bodies into the Yellow River. Zhang Yuanhao defected to Western Xia after failing the examinations in the Song dynasty. He aided the Tanguts in setting up a Chinese-style court. Niu Jinxing was a general in Li Zicheng 's rebel army during the last years of the Ming dynasty.
Having failed to become a jinshi, he targeted high officials and members of the royal family, butchering them as retribution. Hong Xiuquan was the leader of the Taiping Rebellion during the late Qing dynasty.
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He repeatedly failed to become a shengyuan. After his fourth and final attempt at the examinations, he had a nervous breakdown, during which he received visions of heaven where he was part of a celestial family. Due to the influence of Christian missionary activity in China at the time, Hong came to believe his visions had been of God, his father, and Jesus Christ, his brother. He subsequently created an organization called the God Worshippers and waged war on the Qing dynasty, devastating parts of southeast China that would not recover for decades.
Reformers charged that the set format of the " Eight-legged essay " stifled original thought and satirists portrayed the rigidity of the system in novels such as Rulin waishi. In the twentieth century, the New Culture Movement portrayed the examination system as a cause for China's weakness in such stories as Lu Xun 's " Kong Yiji. However, the political and ethical theories of Confucian classical curriculum have also been likened to the classical studies of humanism in European nations which proved instrumental in selecting an "all-rounded" top-level leadership.
US leaders included "virtue" such as reputation and support for the US constitution as a criterion for government service. These features have been compared to similar aspects of the earlier Chinese model. The Cambridge-Oxford ideal of the civil service was identical to the Confucian ideal of a general education in world affairs through humanism.
In late imperial China , the examination system was the primary mechanism by which the central government captured and held the loyalty of local-level elites. Their loyalty, in turn, ensured the integration of the Chinese state, and countered tendencies toward regional autonomy and the breakup of the centralized system.
The examination system distributed its prizes according to provincial and prefectural quotas, which meant that imperial officials were recruited from the whole country, in numbers roughly proportional to each province's population. Elite individuals all over China, even in the disadvantaged peripheral regions, had a chance at succeeding in the examinations and achieving the rewards and emoluments office brought.
The examination based civil service thus promoted stability and social mobility. The Confucian-based examinations meant that the local elites and ambitious would-be members of those elites across the whole of China were taught with similar values. Even though only a small fraction about 5 percent of those who attempted the examinations actually passed them and even fewer received titles, the hope of eventual success sustained their commitment. Those who failed to pass did not lose wealth or local social standing; as dedicated believers in Confucian orthodoxy, they served, without the benefit of state appointments, as teachers, patrons of the arts, and managers of local projects, such as irrigation works, schools, or charitable foundations.
During the Tang dynasty, candidates were either recommended by their schools or had to register for exams at their home prefecture. By the Song dynasty, theoretically all adult Chinese men were eligible for the examinations. The only requirement was education.
In practice, a number of official and unofficial restrictions applied to who was able to take the imperial exams. The commoners were divided into four groups according to occupation: scholars, farmers, artisans, and merchants. Among the forms of discrimination faced by the "mean" people were restriction from government office and the credential to take the imperial exam. Butchers and sorcerers were also excluded at times. During the Song dynasty, artisans and merchants were specifically excluded from the jinshi exam; and, in the Liao dynasty, physicians, diviners, butchers, and merchants were all prohibited from taking the examinations.
Aside from official restrictions, there was also the economic problem faced by men of poorer means. The route to a jinshi degree was long and the competition fierce. Men who achieved a jinshi degree in their twenties were considered extremely fortunate. Someone who obtained a jinshi degree in their thirties was also considered on schedule. Both were expected to study continuously for years without interruption.
Without the necessary economic support, even studying for the exams would not have been possible. After completing their studies, candidates also had to pay for travel and lodging expenses, not to mention thank-you gifts for the examiners and tips for the staff. Banquets and entertainment also had to be paid for. As a result of these expenses, the nurturing of a candidate was a common burden for the whole family.
Each candidate arrived at an examination compound with only a few amenities: a water pitcher, a chamber pot , bedding, food prepared by the examinee , an inkstone , ink and brushes.
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Guards verified a student's identity and searched him for hidden texts such as cheat sheets. The facilities provided for the examinee consisted of an isolated room or cell with a makeshift bed, desk, and bench. Each examinee was assigned to a cell according to their number.
Paper was provided by the examiners and stamped with an official seal. Interruptions and outside communication were forbidden for the duration of the exam. If a candidate died, officials wrapped his body in a straw mat and tossed it over the high walls that ringed the compound. At the end of the examination, answer sheets were processed by the sealing office. The Ming era Book of Swindles ca. To prevent cheating, the sealing office erased any information about the candidate found on the paper and assigned a number to each candidate's papers. Persons in the copy office then recopied the entire text three times so that the examiners would not be able to identify the author.
The first review was carried out by an examining official, and the papers were then handed over to a secondary examining official and to an examiner, either the chief examiner or one of several vice examiners. Judgments by the first and second examining official were checked again by a determining official, who fixed the final grade.
Working with the team of examiners were a legion of gate supervisors, registrars, sealers, copyists and specialist assessors of literature. When he first enters the examination compound and walks along, panting under his heavy load of luggage, he is just like a beggar. Next, while undergoing the personal body search and being scolded by the clerks and shouted at by the soldiers, he is just like a prisoner. When he finally enters his cell and, along with the other candidates, stretches his neck to peer out, he is just like the larva of a bee.
When the examination is finished at last and he leaves, his mind in a haze and his legs tottering, he is just like a sick bird that has been released from a cage.
While he is wondering when the results will be announced and waiting to learn whether he passed or failed, so nervous that he is started even by the rustling of the trees and the grass and is unable to sit or stand still, his restlessness is like that of a monkey on a leash. When at last the results are announced and he has definitely failed, he loses his vitality like one dead, rolls over on his side, and lies there without moving, like a poisoned fly. Then, when he pulls himself together and stands up, he is provoked by every sight and sound, gradually flings away everything within his reach, and complains of the illiteracy of the examiners.
When he calms down at last, he finds everything in the room broken. At this time he is like a pigeon smashing its own precious eggs. These are the seven transformations of a candidate.